The Cholas were a South Indian dynasty that ruled over the Chola Kingdom during the medieval period. They were known for their military proficiency and extensive conquests. However, in the 12th century, the Cholas faced defeats at the hands of two major powers in South India - the Western Chalukyas and the Pandyas.

The Cholas and the Western Chalukyas engaged in frequent wars during the 12th century, known as the Chola-Chalukya Wars. The Western Chalukyas, also known as the Kalyani Chalukyas, were a powerful dynasty that ruled over a kingdom in the present-day state of Karnataka. The Cholas and the Western Chalukyas had conflicts over territorial expansion and dominance in the region. While the Cholas were successful in some campaigns, they also faced significant setbacks and losses against the Western Chalukyas during this period.

The Pandyas, who were another prominent dynasty in South India, also clashed with the Cholas in the 12th century. The Pandyas ruled over a kingdom in the present-day state of Tamil Nadu and were known for their maritime trade and naval strength. The Cholas and the Pandyas had a history of rivalry, and in the 12th century, the Pandyas were able to defeat the Cholas in some battles and assert their dominance in the region. The year 1279 CE marked the end of the Chola Dynasty. Rajendra Chola III was the last ruler of the Chola Dynasty. He ruled between the period 1246 to 1279 AD. The last Chola king, Rajendra Chola III, was defeated by Maravarman Kulasekara Pandyan I. And with this, the Pandya’s established their rule in present-day Tamil Nadu. This is the end oldest ruling dynasty in South India.

It's worth noticing that the history of this period is complex and often based on fragmented historical records, and there may be different elucidations and disputes among historians about the specifics of these conflicts.


Chopra, P. N.; Ravindran, T. K.; Subrahmanian, N. (2003), History of South India: Ancient, Medieval and Modern, S. Chand & Company Ltd, ISBN 978-81-219-0153-6