The Role of Cytokinins in Agriculture and Abiotic Stress Mitigation


Germination of seed

Role of Cytokinins in Agriculture 

The search for greater yields, hardy crops, and sustainable agricultural methods is an ongoing process in agriculture. Scientists have been delving into the fascinating world of plant hormones in this dynamic environment, discovering their tremendous impact on crop development, health, and adaptability. One subset of these plant hormones, the cytokinins, has become a key factor in the agricultural industry, providing answers to some of the most important problems that farmers around the world are currently dealing with.

Within plants, cytokinins act as the directors of a symphony, directing different growth processes and reactions to environmental changes. They are crucial in both increasing crop output and protecting plants from the damaging impacts of abiotic conditions such as salinity, drought, and severe temperatures. In this blog, we explore the significance of cytokinins in agriculture, their effects on plant development and stress tolerance, and how they have the potential to transform contemporary farming methods. Cytokinin is essential to defend plants against excessive light exposure and a unique kind of abiotic stress generated by an altered photoperiod

Types of Cytokinins:

Adenine-Type Cytokinins:

Adenine makes up the fundamental structure of these cytokinins. The most popular adenine-type cytokinins are as follows:

Zeatin: One of the well-investigated cytokinins is Zeatin. It is a substance that naturally appears in a variety of plant tissues and is linked to cell division and shoot development. Zeatin comes in a variety of forms, such as trans- and cis-zeatin.

Dihydrozeatin: Dihydrozeatin shares structural similarities with zeatin and is also a growth-promoting substance.

Isopentenyladenine (IPA)-Type Cytokinins:

Isopentenyladenine is the source of these cytokinins. A few instances of IPA-type cytokinins include:

Isopentenyladenine (IPA): IPA is an organic cytokinin that promotes plant growth by promoting cell division, the development of new shoots, and overall plant growth.

Triacontanol: Long-chain cytokinin triacontanol has been discovered to promote plant growth and stress tolerance. Contrary to several other cytokinins, it is not as frequently investigated.

Synthetic cytokinins have been created for use in horticulture and agriculture in addition to these two primary types.

Synthetic cytokinins:

Benzyladenine (BA): Because it is so successful at encouraging the production of shoots and roots, benzyladenine (BA), a synthetic cytokinin, is frequently employed in tissue culture and plant propagation.

Kinetin: One of the first cytokinins to be identified was kinetin, a synthetic cytokinin. Although it is less frequently employed these days, it was historically important for the research of plant hormones.

Forchlorfenuron (CPPU): Forchlorfenuron is a synthetic cytokinin that is employed in agriculture to boost yields and encourage the growth of fruit in a variety of crops, including grapes and kiwifruit.

6-Benzylaminopurine (6-BA): 6BA a synthetic cytokinin having qualities resembling those of natural cytokinins, is a plant growth regulator. Due to its capacity to encourage cell division and general plant growth, it is frequently employed in horticulture, agriculture, and tissue culture.

It's crucial to remember that many plant species produce a range of naturally occurring cytokinins and that the precise kinds and proportions of cytokinins present might differ between various plant species and tissues. Only a few of the most well-known and frequently studied cytokinins are represented by the names and categories of cytokinins that were previously stated. Future cytokinin discoveries may result from ongoing research into the functions of various cytokinins in plant growth and development.

Paddy field

Cytokinins are essential for both plant growth and development and the reduction of abiotic stress. They perform a variety of tasks and have an impact on different physiological systems in plants. The effect of cytokinins in promoting plant growth and reducing abiotic stress is described as follows:

What is the role of cytokinin in agriculture? 

Cell division: The ability of cytokinins to induce cell division is well established. They encourage the development of the shoot and root meristems, which results in a rise in cell density and tissue expansion. The growth of the entire plant depends on this.

Shoot Development: By promoting lateral bud growth and branching, cytokinins offset the auxin-caused apical dominance impact. This causes more branches to grow, which makes the plant bushier and stronger as a result.

Root Growth: While cytokinins often encourage shoot growth, they prevent roots from growing longer. The architecture of the plant and optimal nutrient uptake depend on this balance between shoot and root growth.

Delaying Senescence: Cytokinins can prevent plant tissues, particularly leaves, from aging and senescence. Increased photosynthesis and nutrient uptake are the results of the leaves' ability to stay green and functional for longer.

Flowering and Fruit Development: By encouraging flower formation and fruit growth, cytokinins also impact blooming and fruit development. They influence the quantity and size of fruits that are produced.

What is the role of Cytokinins in abiotic stress tolerance?

Drought stress: It has been demonstrated that cytokinins improve plant tolerance to drought. They aid in controlling the opening and closing of stomata, hence minimizing water loss through transpiration. This can aid plants in water conservation when under drought stress.

Salt Stress: By enhancing ion homeostasis and lowering the harmful consequences of too much salt in plant cells, cytokinins can reduce the effects of salt stress. They also encourage root development, which can help the body tolerate salt stress.

Heat Stress: By controlling numerous physiological processes like photosynthesis and antioxidant defense mechanisms, cytokinins can assist plants in surviving heat stress. They might improve the plant's tolerance for hot temperatures.

Oxidative Stress: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be removed by cytokinins, which lowers oxidative stress in plant cells. This is crucial in stressful circumstances, as when exposed to pollutants or intense light.

Nutrient Uptake: By encouraging root development and increasing the effectiveness of nutrient transport networks, cytokinins can boost nutrient uptake. Under circumstances where nutrients are scarce, this may be advantageous.

Overall Stress Tolerance: Overall Stress Tolerance: By enhancing a plant's capacity to adapt to shifting environmental conditions and minimizing the negative effects of stress factors, cytokinins can increase a plant's overall stress tolerance.

It's vital to remember that cytokinin concentration, plant species, and certain environmental factors can all affect how cytokinins affect plant development and stress tolerance. For plants to grow and respond to stress optimally, the hormones auxin, gibberellin, and abscisic acid must be balanced with cytokinins. In order to maximize crop output and stress tolerance, researchers are still investigating cytokinins in horticulture and agriculture.

In conclusion, cytokinins have a very extraordinary role in agriculture. These plant hormones are the unsung heroes that coordinate crucial aspects of plant growth, development, and stress response, despite frequently being overshadowed by their more well-known counterparts like auxins and gibberellins. In the fight against abiotic stress factors that imperil crop output, cytokinins are crucial allies. Agricultural systems can be severely damaged by stresses like drought, salt, excessive temperatures, and others. By encouraging nutrient transport, improving the plant's ability to use water, and strengthening its defense mechanisms, cytokinins act as stress mitigators. How to acquire access to high-quality cytokinins is crucial for improved outcomes.

Tomato plant

Post a Comment

Post a Comment (0)

#buttons=(Accept !) #days=(10)

Our website uses cookies to enhance your experience. Learn More
Accept !